Groundbreaking exoplanet science with the ANDES spectrograph at the ELT

Stellar vs. Planetary Rest Framework for Hot ie. a short orbit planet (red arrow) and a temperate planet (green arrow) in the habitable zone around the host star. For a temperate planet, the planetary and stellar (black arrow) rest frames are much closer together, and changes in stellar activity can distort the planetary atmospheric signal (figure adapted from Bourrier et al, 2020). — astro-f.IM

Over the past decade, the study of exoplanet atmospheres with high spectral resolution, using transmission/emission spectroscopy and cross-correlation atomic/molecular mapping techniques, has become a powerful and consolidated methodology.

The current limitation is the signal-to-noise ratio during a planetary transit. This limitation will be overcome by ANDES, a high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectrograph for the ELT. ANDES will be a powerful transformational tool for exoplanet science. This will enable the study of giant planet atmospheres, allowing not only the precise determination of atmospheric composition, but also the study of isotopic compositions, dynamics and weather patterns, mapping of planetary atmospheres, and the study of atmospheric forms and evolutionary patterns.

The unprecedented angular resolution of ANDES will also allow us to probe the initial conditions under which planets form in protoplanetary disks. The primary science case of ANDES, however, is the study of small, rocky exoplanet atmospheres, including the potential for biomarker detection, and the ability to reach this science case is the driving force behind its instrument design. Here, we discuss our simulations and observational strategies to achieve this specific science goal.

As ANDES will operate simultaneously with NASA’s JWST and ESA’s ARIEL missions, it will provide enormous synergies in the characterization of planetary atmospheres at high and low spectral resolution. In addition, ANDES will be able to probe the atmospheres of several giant and minor planets in reflected light for the first time.

In particular, we show how ANDES will be able to unlock the reflected light atmospheric signal of a golden sample of nearby Earth-sized planets in the non-transiting habitable zone within a few tenths of a night, a science goal that no other currently approved astronomical facility has to manage to be able to reach.

Jayne Birkby, Matteo Brogi, Gael Chauvin, Andrea Chiavassa, Jens Hoeijmakers, Emmanuel Lellouch, Christophe Lovis, Roberto Maiolino, Lisa Nortmann, Hannu Parviainen, Lorenzo Pino, Martin Turbet, Jesse Wender, Simon Albrecht, Simone Antoniucci, Susana C. Barros, Andre Beaudoin, Bjorn Beneke, Isabelle Boase, Aldo S. Bonomo, Francesco Borsa, Alexis Brandecker, Wolfgang Brandner, Lars A. Buhave, Anne-Laure Cheffo, Robin Deborde, Florian Debras, René Doyon, Paolo Di Marcantonio, Paolo Jacobe, Jonai I. Gonzalez Hernandez, Ravit Helled, Laura Kreidberg, Pedro Machado, Jesus Maldonado, Alessandro Marconi, BL Canto Martins, Adriano Miceli, Christoph Mordasini, Mamadou N’Diaye, Andrez Niedzielski, Brunella Nisini, Livia Origlia, Celine Peroux, Alex GM Pietrow , Enrico Pinna, Emily Rauscher, Sabine Reffert, Philippe Rousselot, Nicoletta Sanna, Adrien Simonnin, Alejandro Suarez Mascareno, Alessio Zanutta, Mathias Zechmeister

Comments: 66 pages (103 with references) 20 figures. Submitted to Experimental Astronomy
Subjects: Instruments and Methods for Astrophysics (astro-ph.IM); Terrestrial and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP)
Cite as: arXiv:2311.17075 [astro-ph.IM] (or arXiv:2311.17075v1 [astro-ph.IM] for this version)
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Submission history
By: Enrique Pale
[v1] Monday, November 27, 2023 21:04:30 UTC (16,231 KB)

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