Health-related quality of life among ethnic minority residents in remote western China: a cross-sectional study | BMC Public Health

Participant characteristics

Of the 1,019 respondents, 58.2% were female, the average age was 43.7 years, 61.5% had an education level of primary school or below, and the average BMI was 24.5 kg/cm2. There were 375 people in the low-income group and 644 in the non-low-income group, and the self-reported health score was slightly lower in the low-income group (7.45 ± 1.74) than in the non-low-income group (7 .63 ± 2.02). age (P = 0.004), household size (P = 0.002), occupation (P = 0.03), sleep duration (P = 0.034), daily cooking oil intake per capita (P = 0.005), daily intake of vegetables per capita (P = 0.005), distance to the nearest health facility (P = 0.005), self-rated health score (P = 0.03), and those who lived with others were statistically significant between the two groups (P = 0.038); the differences were statistically significant. Table 1 shows the characteristics of the respondents.

Table 1 Demographic characteristics of rural Uyghur residents

EQ-5D distribution and health utility index in different groups

As shown in Table 2, the range of the health utility index for 1019 respondents is (- 0.197, 1). Of those surveyed, 52.8%, 49.2%, 57.5%, 42.3%, and 30.8% had problems with mobility, self-care, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and depression/anxiety, respectively. More respondents had more problems with their usual activities, mobility and less problems with depression/anxiety. We compared the low-income group with the non-low-income group and the differences were statistically significant in self-care (P = 0.027) and usual activity (P = 0.023) sizes. However, the health utility indices for the low-income (− 0.182, 1) and non-low-income (− 0.197, 1) groups and the difference between the two groups (P = 0.251) is not statistically significant.

Table 2 Health status in the five dimensions and health utility

One-factor analysis

We conducted a univariate analysis of the factors influencing the health utility index, excluding income (P = 0.251), physical activity (P = 0.295), daily intake of vegetables per capita (P = 0.341) and daily fruit intake per capita (P = 0.246), which did not pass the statistical tests; the remaining variables are statistically significant. Table 3 provides additional information.

Table 3 Univariate analysis of health utility values ​​among rural Uyghur residents

Factors influencing HRQOL among rural Uyghur residents

Mobility, self-care, usual activity, pain/discomfort, and depression/anxiety were specified as dependent variables in binary logistic models. Table 4 presents the results. Women are most likely to have mobility problems (OR = 0.365, 95% CI = 0.245,0.543), self-service (OR = 0.513, 95% CI = 0.347,0.757) and pain/discomfort (OR = 0.596, 95% CI = 0.407, 0.874). Health status declines with age and self-reported health in the five EQ-5D dimensions is poor. Additionally, healthy behavioral lifestyle was significantly associated with EQ-5D prevalence status. Per capita daily vegetable intake and per capita daily fruit intake were associated with usual activity (OR = 1.002, 95% CI = 1.000,1.004; OR = 1.001, 95% CI = 1,000,1,002) and depression/anxiety (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.995,1.000; OR= 0.999, 95% CI= 0.998.1.000). Finally, residents suffering from NCDs had mobility health problems (OR= 2.520, 95% CI= 1.589,3.998), self-care (OR= 2.745, 95%CI= 1.761,4.277), usual activity (OR= 2.103.95% CI= 1.355,3.266) and pain/discomfort (OR= 2.789, 95%CI= 1.849, 4.205). Residents with low self-rated health scores were more likely to be unhealthy in terms of self-care (OR= 0.656, 95% CI= 0.590,0.730), usual activity (OR= 0.670, 95% CI= 0.603,0.744) and pain/discomfort (OR= 0.676, 95% CI= 0.610, 0.748). Residents who did not participate in community activities had health problems according to the five dimensions of the EQ-5D

Table 4 Five-dimensional multivariate analysis and Tobit regression model of health utility index among rural Uyghur residents

Table 4 presents the results of the Tobit regression model. We found that gender (coef. = − 0.0948, 95% CI= − 0.1403, − 0.0493), age (coef. = − 0.0031 95% CI= − 0.0049, − 0.0013), married (coef. = − 0.0125, 95% CI= − 0.2168, − 0.0342), divorced/death of spouse (coef. = − 0.1903, 95% CI= − 0.3111, − 0.0694), exercise (coefficient = 0.0971, 95% CI = 0.0543, 0.1399), sleep time from 7 to 9 hours (coefficient = 0.1382, 95% CI= 0.0711,0.2053), daily fruit intake per capita (coef. = − 0.0001, 95% CI= − 0.0002.0), daily intake of oil per capita (coef. = − 0.0006, 95% CI= − 0.0012.0), distance to the nearest medical facility 2–4 km (coef. = 0.047, 95% CI= 0.0045,0.0895), distance to the nearest medical facility of > 4 km (coefficient = 0.1426, 95% CI = 0.0833, − 0.2019), NCDs (coefficient = 0, 1576, 95% CI= 0.1059,0.2093), self-reported health outcomes (coef. = 0.0852, 95% CI= 0.0737,0.0968) and participation in social activities (coef. = − 0.1991, 95% CI= − 0.2530, − 0.1452) are statistically significant and these variables correlate with the health utility index of rural Uyghur residents.

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